Bee and Pollination Links:
Bees in General:
Photo keys to eastern US species! Also photo guides to many animals and plants
USDA native bee lab, Logan Utah. Focus on Megachile,
Osmia, and conservation of native bees.
USDA Carl Hayden Bee Lab, Tucson Arizona. Focus on
Apis, and on education. Good information on native bees from Steve
Bee Research Lab. Beltsville MD. Focus on Apis
- The International Bee Research
Association. Mostly apis and commercial interests, but some good links
here., including a directory of people interested in the field
The Insect world’s
Solitary Bee page.
Nice background and information, good scans of excellent paintings. This page
is part of an excellent general entomology site.
International Pollination services (Pollination.com). Lots
of information and images about Megachile, Osmia, and Nomia
as pollinators, and some on Bombus as well. Good links.
Raising orchard mason bees. North Carolina
Agricultural Extension Service.
Common Missouri Wasps and
Good general info and
images on selected members of this group. Missouri Department of Conservation
The pollination page. -
Pollinator.com. Primarily horticultural
interests, but good information on native bees
Pollination studies at the
University of Idaho.
Dr. Karen Strickler’s page. Lots of good information and links on alfalfa
Carpenter bees of Florida. Biology, images,
including both Xylocopa and Ceratina.
Nelson Bohart bug gallery. Excellent online images,
with emphasis on hymenoptera (site is dedicated to the prominent Hymenopteran
systematist Ned Bohart)
Bee Works. Lots of stuff for kids,
listing of many (all?) genera of bees, information on pollination
The Bee Course. is a workshop offered for conservation biologists, pollination ecologists and other biologists who want to gain
greater knowledge of the systematics and biology of bees. Includes application form for the course
(held at the Southwestern Research Station, Portal, Arizona). I want to go!
Phylogeny page from Danforth et al, Cornell
- The Syrphus pages:
Natural history and environment of the Highlands and
Islands of Scotland.
- Pamphlets on many types of bees from the
International Bee Research Association.
- Amazing slide shows from Sam
Droge on Bee genera fo Eastern North America
streaming video from inside a bumble
bee nest! Narration and text is in Czech 9by
Way too cool!
- List of World Bumble Bees .
"List of the world's bumble bee species, with notes on taxonomic
and nomenclatural problems. Species can be accessed by biogeographic region, by
subgenus, or from an alphabetic index to some of the more commonly used names.
Also includes pages on subjects such as the decline in British bumble
bees." By the British Bombus Systematist Paul Williams.
Flight of the bumble bee. Reprint online of Michigan
entomologist article, with very useful cartoons of color patterns for the
species of the area. Not to be confused with the piano classic
Flight of the bumble bee. by Rimsky Korsakov
The Wisconsin Bumblebee. Online key to Wisconsin
species (but note that it uses some older terminology, referring to nevadensis
as auricomis, and pennsylvanicus as americanorum)
Bumble bees of Canada. Lots on colony rearing.
Also info on genetic, species lists, other information. By Robert Owen and Troy
Bumble bees of Florida. Key and images, biology.
Part of the wonderful "featured creatures" site.
- Key to and
Western US Bombus. Excellent undergraduate
project at evergreen college, with good images.
The Bumble Bee pages. British site with a wide
range of good information, including how to mark and rear
Bumble bee nest box
Also has a linked page with a nice list of print and electronic references.
Boosters is a cooperative project of the University of Nebraska
Department of Entomology, the Lincoln Public Schools Science Focus Program, and
the Folsom Children's Zoo. Wonderful online key and photos of pinned specimens
of Nebraska Bombus and Psythirus. NOTE:
The key and drawings and
much of the information on the web can be bought in a cute little booklet
(spiral-bound 3x5 cards with high quality printing) that might be useful. It's
only $5. I ordered a copy from: University of Nebraska Cooperative
extension. PO box 830918 Lincoln NE 68583-0918
Call them to order at:
402-472-3023, and ask about the "bumbleboosters" book, item #
Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility. Parts of the at the Canadian
National Collection (including over 8,000 bumble bee specimens) have
been databased, digitized and georeferenced, with unique identifier labels
added to each specimens. It is now available online at
- 2.5 minute BBC video of a
Bombus lucorum - truly amazing. Click
HERE, then click on the video that says "Bombus lucorum nest chambers".
Background and a few images on European
Koppert. Commercial supplier of Bombus
colonies for glasshouse pollination
- The mason
bee people. Commercial supplier and information clearing house for mason
bee materials.. http://www.beediverse.com/
International nonprofit organization, focused on public education about
invertebrates and conservation projects that demonstrate their critical roles in
endangered ecosystems around the globe
- The Forgotten Pollinators campaign is an effort to
call international attention to the critical role pollination plays in putting
food on our plates, and in maintaining healthy wild communities around the
globe. Parallels the book of the same name
- The Vanishing Pollinators – Great
photos and some background info from the Smithsonian institution (US). Oddly, many
of the Bombus photos are of European species.
- A Special Feature
on Insect Pollinator Declines in North America forms in the online
journal "Conservation Ecology" (http://www.consecol.org/Journal/vol5/iss1/).
- A very interesting
Quinn McFrederick (graduate student at SFSU)
involving the public in a survey to
confirm the disappearance of bumble bees from San Francisco.
Includes keys and photos of the local bees . See also Newspaper artcicle at.
1975. Bumblebees. London : Davis-Poynter,
and exciting summary of the basic biology of this fascinating group, with a
heavy emphasis on British species.
1979. Bumblebee economics. Harvard University Press.
and challenging exploration of the physiological ecology of Bombus.
Bees of the World. .to be released Summer 2000.
opus by the top bee systematist of them all.
Michener, CD, RJ
McGinley, BN Danforth. 1994. The Bee Genera of North and Central America.
Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, USA.
you're between Panama and the Arctic circle, have I got a bee book for you!
This is a great place to start in identification -- great pictures in the key
to help you out, good descriptions of genera, and some scant but useful
information on biology. Note that the key has side-by-side English and Spanish
Theodore B. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States. Published by the North
Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. 2 volumes.
18 pages of introductory biological background, then > 500 pages of keys,
line drawings. species descriptions, and distribution notes. Good for technical
ID, but not a book for reading. No, the author is no relation to me that I know
O'Toole & Anthony Raw. 1999. The Bees of the World. Facts on File. London :
Blandford ; New York, N.Y. : Distributed in the U.S. by Sterling.
source on basic bee biology of all groups, great photos.
GE Bohart, PF Torchio. The Biology and External Morphology of Bees. With a
synopsis of the genera of Northwestern America. Published by the Agricultural
Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR.
book is packed with great information. The key to genera is nice, but there is
an enormous wealth of information here on the basic biology of a wide variety
of bees (emphasis on Nomia and other agriculturally important wild
bees). The binding on this book is terrible -- every copy I've ever seen has
all the pages loose, but it's worth the trouble.
(I find Laverty and
Harder, and Medler and Carney to be the most useful, though discover life is
handy and clever).
Chandler, L. 1950. The Bombidae of Indiana.
Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 60:167-177.
Frison, TH. 1919. Keys to the separation of the
Bremidae, or bumblebees of Illinois, and other notes. Transactions of the
Illinois State Academy of Science 12:157-166.
Husband, RW, RL Fischer, TW Porter. 1980.
Description and Biology of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Michigan. Great
Lakes Entomologist 13:225-239.
Laverty, TM and LD Harder. 1988. The bumble bees
of eastern Canada. Canadian Entomologist 120:965-987.
Medler, JT, and DW Carney. 1963. Bumblebees of
Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apidae). University of Wisconsin Research Bulletin
Milliron, HE. 1939. The taxonomy and distribution
of Michigan Bombidae, with keys. Papers Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and
Pickering, J. Discover life - Maps of
bee (and other taxa) specimens and valid bee names available online, with online
keys and distribution maps.
of pollinators foraging on
Lupine at Cascade Metropark (a
small and disjunct population in Summit County OH) in 1997:
Bombus griseocollis - Foraging sequence - 1.2
Bombus griseocollis - closeup - note how the
flower is manipulated - 3.4 meg
Osmia sp. 2.2 meg. Notice her
use of the middle set of legs to manipulate the flower and pump out pollen
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