1 Frederick Marryat, A Diary in America With Remarks on Its Institutions (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), 389.
2 Throughout this work I will interchangeably use the terms ‘tavern’, ‘bar’, ‘ordinary’ and ‘public house’. I avoid using the terms ‘saloon’ and ‘hotel’ because they elicit decidedly post-bellum connotations.
3 Gordon Wood, The Creation of the American Republic 1776-1787 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969). Wood is one of many vilifying taverns as restricting republicanism following the American Revolution and argues that they served to tear apart, rather than unite, Americans.
4 David W. Conroy, In Public Houses: Drink and the Revolution of Authority in Colonial Massachusetts (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995). Thomas Brennan, Public Drinking and Popular Culture in Eighteenth-Century Paris (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988). Peter Thompson, Rum Punch and Revolution: Taverngoing & Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999).
5 Historic Sites of Cleveland: Hotels and Taverns, (Columbus: The Ohio Historical Records Survey Project, 1942).
6 Alexis de Tocqueville, Journey to America, trans. George Lawrence, ed. J.P. Mayer. (Garden City: Anchor Books, 1971).
7 Lora Case, Hudson of Long Ago: Reminiscences (Hudson: The Hudson Library and Historical Society, 1963).
8 Works Progress Administration Professional and Service Division District Four, Annals of Cleveland Court Record Series. Vol. 1, 1837-1850 (Cleveland: Cuyahoga County Archives Survey, 1939), 45-6.
9 Gregg Smith is one of the pre-eminent beer historians active today. His insights into the effects of beer throughout American, and world, history are truly fascinating. See Gregg Smith, Beer in America: The Early Years–1587-1840 (Boulder: Siris Books, 1998).
10 Alice Morse Earle, Stage-Coach and Tavern Days (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1930), 126.
11 “McIlrath Tavern. East Cleveland. Account Book, 1809-1846,” MS 1165, Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland.
12 William Cooper Howells, Recollections of Life in Ohio, From 1813 to 1840 (Cincinnati: The Robert Clarke Company, 1895).
13 “Brough, John. 1802-1821. MSS 565. Collection of Account Books, 1770-1920,” Container 2, Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland.
14 Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham, Memorial to the Pioneer Women of the Western Reserve (Cleveland: The Judson Company, 1924), 199.
15 See Peter Clark, The English Alehouse: A Social History 1200-1830 (London: Longman, 1983). See also Micheal Chevalier Society, Manners & Politics in the United States (Boston: Weeks, Jordan and Company, 1963) and Marryat, A Diary in America for further information on the differences between public houses in the Old World and in the New.
16 Marryat, A Diary in America, 373.
17 Harry F. Lupold and Gladys Haddad, Ohio’s Western Reserve: A Regional Reader (Kent: The Kent State University Press, 1988).
18 Paton Yoder, Taverns and Travelers (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969).
19 James B. Walker. Experiences of Pioneer Life in the Early Settlements and Cities of the West (Chicago: Sumner & Co., 1881).
20 The Western Intelligencer (Hudson),15 November 1828.
24 Reuben Gold Thwaites, Early Western Travels: 1748-1846, vol 9 (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1904).
25 W.J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979)
26 The Western Intelligencer (Hudson), 5 December 1827.
27 The Journal of Emily (Nash) Patchin Halkins Pike from Plainfield, Massachusetts in 1812/3 to Troy Township, Geauga County, Ohio, 1812-1888, (Chardon: Chardon Library); quoted in Robert A. Wheeler, ed., Visions of the Western Reserve: Public and Private Documents of Northeastern Ohio, 1750-1860 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2000)130.
29 The Western Intelligencer (Hudson), 5 December 1827.