31 Marryat, A Diary in America, 62.
32 Harry Ellsworth Cole, Stagecoach and Tavern Tales of the Old Northwest (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1930).
33 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, A Tour to New Connecticut in 1811: The Narrative of Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, ed. Phillip R. Shriver (Cleveland: Western Reserve Historical Society, 1985); quoted in Wheeler, Visions of the Western Reserve, 105.
34 Historic Sites of Cleveland: Hotels and Taverns, 452.
35 Herald (Cleveland), 15 November 1839.
36 Yoder, Taverns and Travelers. Yoder’s work is quite scholarly and does touch briefly on taverns in northeastern Ohio. He studies such a vast geographical area, however, that his conclusions merit reconsideration. He, like Rhea Masnfield Knittle, require a fresh look and are in need of re-analysis. Their works, while dated, should not be discredited merely on age. See Rhea Mansfield Knittle, Early Ohio Taverns: Tavern-sign, Stage-coach, Barge, Banner, Chair and Setee Painters (privately printed, 1937).
37 Biographical History of Northeastern Ohio (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1893).
39 David Hudson’s daughter Anner “often presided as barmaid” in his Hudson tavern as did many other family members of tavern keepers. Taverns were a family-run operation for the duration of this period of study and represented a unique opportunity for women to act as a type of entrepreneur while safely within the confines of the cult of domesticity. Their roles, however, did not spill into political discussions or republicanism, the two central themes of this work. See Grace Goulder Izant Hudson’s Heritage (Kent: The Kent State University Press, 1985), 109-110 and Kym S. Rice, Early American Taverns: For the Entertainment of Friends and Strangers (Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1983).
40 Wood, The Creation of the American Republic 1776-1787; Dan Rodgers, “Republicanism: the Career of a Concept,” Journal of American History, June 1992.
41 Historic Sites of Cleveland: Hotels and Taverns. See also Adam Criblez, From Grog-Punch to Hard Cider: Tavern Culture on Ohio’s Western Reserve, 1796-1840. Thesis, Kent State University, 2003.
42 Smith, Beer in America.
43 Gertrude Van Rensselaer Wickham, The Pioneer Families of Cleveland: 1796-1840 (Evangelical Publishing House, 1914), 176.
44 Historic Sites of Cleveland: Hotels and Taverns.
45 Thwaites, Early Western Travels.
46 Major Lorenzo Carter opened the first tavern in Cleveland in 1798. His served the first generation of settlers who moved to the area in search of land and opportunity.
47 Historic Sites of Cleveland: Hotels and Taverns, 204.
48 James T. Austin, An Address Delivered before the Massachusetts Society for the Supression of Intemperance (Boston: privately printed, 1830), 6; quoted in W.J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 18.
49 Earle, Stage-Coach and Tavern Days, 253
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