REVOLUTION

 

Who are the revolutionaries?

     

 

Revolutionary Leaders

 

 

Examples:

Fidel Castro

 

             Che Guevara

 

             Camilo Torres of Colombia

 

             Luis Carrión of Nicaragua

 

             Sub-Commander Marcos of Chiapas Mexico

            

      Characteristic shared by revolutionary leaders:

A profound sensitivity to the injustice

 

Castro

 

Che

 

Camilo Torres    

 

Tomás Borge

 

Idania Fernandez

 

Jose Marti

 

             Sacrifice:

                   Che

                   Torres

                   Idiana

                   Sandinistas Tomás Torres

 

             Conclusion about revolutionary leaders:

                   Easy to fight for self

 

                   Ego and ethnocentricism

 

                   Most human characteristic

                         Christ to Mother Teresa

 

                         Lester Ward

 

                   Leaders sacrificed a lot

 

 

 

Popular Support: Common People Who Fought in the Revolution

 

Factors that gave rise to popular support

             Essential to succeed

 

             Fighters and support

 

             Conservative

            

      So a combination of factors was usually necessary to make the peasants ready to support the revolutionaries:

                   1) Loss of traditional life

                         A) Loss of land

                               

 

                         B) Loss of traditional way of life centered on the community

                                Networks of personal relations

 

                                Traditions

 

                                Religion

 

                                Enjoyment                                     

 

                         C) Loss of security

 

                                      Hacendado's responsibilities

 

 

                                      Wage Labor

 

 

                        D) Declining income

 

 

                        E) Declining nutrition      

            

 

                   2) Standard of comparison

 

                         Two sources that made them realize how bad off they were

                                A) The past

                                           

                                B) The future

 

1) Revolutionary leadership

 

 

                                      2) Priests

                                            Vatican II and the Mendellin Conference

 

Liberation Theology

                                                   a)  preferential option for the poor”

 

 

      b) poverty in LA resulted from structural sin

 

 

      c) Church's responsibility

 

Threatened the elites

 

 

                                C) Improved communication, transportation, & urbanization

 

            

                                                                                        

                   3) Sense of injustice

                        

 

4) Closed political systems

                        

                        

                         Che Guevara said in his book Guerilla Warfare:

           

                    

             Conclusion about popular support:

 

 

Cuban Revolution

     

Background

 

      Cuba ruled throughout the 20th century by a series of corrupt dictators and puppets

 

      Fulgencio Baptista seized power in 1952—personalistic regime

 

      Corruption

            

 

Fidel Castro

     

      His first public appearance was his attack on Moncada Barracks July 26, 1953

 

            

      Next plan was to capture Santiago

 

             Che Ernesto Guevara—Argentine medical doctor

 

 

 

      Guerilla war

             Popular support

                   Sierra Maestra

 

             Beneficial press coverage

                  

Good linkages to the urban areas

 

Baptista’s army lack the motivation and discipline to fight

 

             US withdraws support

                  

Baptista fled the country 1/1/59

 

             Castro and guerillas rolled into Havana to a heroes welcome

 

What factors lead to Castro’s success?

      1)

 

      2)

 

      3)

 

      4)

 

      5)

 

      6)

 

Myth of the heroic guerilla

 

      Enhanced by Che’s book Guerilla Warfare

 

     

One of the first major reforms was the Agrarian Reform Law of May 1959

            

      Nationalized land

 

      Payment provided     

 

      70% of the population benefited

 

       

Resistance by the US

      US businesses hurt by the reforms              

 

      State Department

demanded

 

             stopped buying Cuban sugar

 

A Critical Threshold

      Feared that US would destroy revolution

     

Fidel planned to do everything he could to help Cuba survive the wrath of the US

      1)

 

      2)

 

      3)

 

      4)

 

      Louis Pérez, the authority on Cuba and Castro, says

 

 

USSR

      Premier Khrushchev of the USSR was reluctant to get involved with Cuba

             1)

 

             2)        

 

But the USSR could not turn its back on Cuba

 

      Before it would help, Khrushchev forced Cuba to try to make amends with the US

             Meeting                

Castro's deal for Kennedy:

The Cuban revolution and reforms were irreversible, but Castro was

                                prepared to

                                      1)

 

                                      2)

 

                                      3)

 

                                In return--

 

                         Kennedy declined

 

             USSR did provide Cuba with what it needed to survive

                   1) Economically—

 

                   2) Physically—

 

             USSR did continuously opposed revolutionary movements in LA

                   Against Marx-Leninists doctrine

 

 

                   This was a constant source of conflict between the USSR and Cuba

                  

 

                   USSR was doing the exact opposite of what the people in the US were being told

 

Result

      Under the protection of the USSR Cuba would become the most socialized country in

the world

 

      For the US policy makers, Cuba was a thorn in the side

 

      Economic blockade

 

             Purpose

 

             Continues

 

             Blockade is a violation of international law

 

United Nations General Assembly has voted overwhelmingly every year since 1992 to end the U.S. embargo against Cuba

 

All 33 leaders in LA call for end

 

             Causes suffering and deaths

 

             But not all Cubans want it to end

 

             Rich Cuban-Americans in Miami

            

 

The Demise of Communism and the USSRCuba suffered

 

      Cuba began to permit some foreign investment

 

      The US took advantage of the hard times in Cuba to tighten the sanctions against Cuba

1992 Cuban Democracy Act

 

             1996 Helms-Burton Act

 

             Cuba’s economy recovered

 

Tourism in Cuba

      Most important source of foreign revenue

 

      Brought back

             Class society

 

             Racism

 

Castro’s Goal

To create a perfect society

 

      This is achieved by

1)      

 

             2)

 

      Predicated on Castro’s view of man

            

 

      Che Guevara’s “New Man” hombre nuevo with a new consciousness, conciencia

             Essay “Socialism and Man in Cuba”—

 

             Man’s effort to bring about kingdom of God

     

Evaluation of Cuban Revolution

Good Things

1) Free social services

      Free health care

 

 

      Education

 

            

 

      Other benefits

 

 

2) Quality of life

      Overseas Development Council

"quality of life index" based on mortality rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy, etc.

                   The most advanced countries always have the highest quality of life index

 

3) Self-sufficient organic farming

 

 

4) Economic Accomplishments 

      (UNEP) has selected Cuba for special recognition—organic farming

     

      World Bank President James Wolfensohn

 

      Homelessness and hunger eliminated

      Crime

      Little corruption in the government

      All while 45 years US economic embargo

 

5) Altruistic foreign policy

 

 

 

Why Cubans try to leave

      Propaganda fro major media—lots of Cubans are leaving Cuba

     

      What major media does not tell you

     

             Immigration before Castro

 

             Cuban immigration less than many other LA countries

 

 

      Reason why leave

 

      1) U.S. blockade has wrought economic hardship and shortages

 

 

      2) Radio Marti

 

 

 

      3) Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966   

 

 

Bad Things

1) Intolerance of dissent

            

      1) Cuba's intolerance is not much different than the way the US acts during wars

            

                   WWI

 

                   WWII

 

                   Cold War

 

                   After 9-11—how intolerant when threatened

 

                   Attorney Michael Linfield, author of Freedom Under Fire: U.S. Civil Liberties in Times of War

 

2) What US calls dissent would be treason in this country

 

      US has been organizing and financing opposition groups in Cuba to overthrow Castro

 

             Former US Interests Section Chief, Wayne Smith

                   US finance groups seeking overthrow of government

 

                   Purpose—destabilize government

 

             James Carson

                   met with, organized, and financed individuals and groups seeking the overthrow of the Cuban government

 

                   Illegal in most countries

 

                         Wayne smith said

 

             Castro’s choice

 

             Cuba arrested, tried, and convicted

 

                   Summary trials made Cuba look bad

 

             Major media refers to them as “prisoners of conscience,” but false impression

                  

Dissent not illegal but treason is

 

      The US would never permit anything like this to happen in this country

 

          This is still going on in Cuba

                   President Bush created a new agency called Transition Plan for a Democratic Cuba to

                         speed up Cuba’s demise--$80 million

 

                   The new US Interest Section director, Michael Parmley, continues to openly meet

                         with anti-Castro groups providing them with money

 

             In spite of all the publicity these groups receive, their numbers are small

                   A CIA report revealed

 

             Mild compared to rest of Latin America

 

                               

2) Cuba a dictatorship, totalitarian regime,  with one party rule

             French Revolution mother of all revolutions—produced two kinds of democracy

      Jacobin Democracy—derived fro ideas of Rousseau

      Natural Rights Democracy—derived from ideas of John Locke

             Jacobin Democracy—the type of democracy that characterizes communism

                   Collective

                                                                     

                   Unitary

 

                   Social contract

 

 

                   General Will is he collective moral force which seeks the betterment of  the group

              

General Will is

 

                   General Will always seeks the Common Good

 

                   General Will is my will since

                         So when I obey the General Will

 

             Majority Issue—Who determines what is right?

     

 

      Government

      Purpose of government is to give expression to the General Will as it works for the

      Common Good

         

             The People’s Role

              Elections

              Three levels of government

                   Small electoral districts

                   Anyone can run for office

                   No campaigning

                   Receive no pay

                   Communists party does not participate

                   Voting is for a representative that will implement the General Will

                         All representatives can be recalled at any time

                   98% usually vote

             

      Example:

 

      One party rule

             Not much difference than US

 

             Raúl Castro

 

             Carol Quigley Tragedy and Hope

 

             What government is called means very little today

            

             All governments

 

             Questions

            

             Do not know if socialism viable alternative

 

             Thomas Jefferson said

 

Popularity of the Cuban Revolution in LA

      Not only because of

1)

 

2)

 

But enhanced because of the style of the revolution

             1)

 

2)

 

3)

 

             4)

 

Influence of the Cuban Revolution in LA

      Traditional communist parties were conservative

 

      Fidelismo

            

      Civilian ascendancy in LA governments

             Only 5 dictators remained in small LA countries

 

      Revolution had a destabilizing influence on civilian governments

 

      Only two countries not affected

 

      Che’s book Guerilla Warfare set forth the rural guerilla war as the model for the

             rest of Latin America

                  

1)

 

2)

           

3)  

 

4)               

 

Key elements in a guerilla war was the guerilla foco

      Foco

 

Objective conditions for revolution

 

      Subjective conditions

 

The foco would create the revolutionary consciousness by

 

      Foquismo

 

Revolutionary upheaval has two phases: early phase from the early to late 1960’s

      and the later phase from 1970 to the 1990’s

First phase:

      Four rural guerilla movements in the early 1960’s

             Guatemala, Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru

                  

                  

 

By 1967 the foquismo strategy losing appeal

 

Che in Bolivia

      Commonly believed

             1)

     

             2)

 

Compañero by Jorge Casteñeda

     

 

Others think that Che was becoming embarrassment to Castro

 

 

Failed because:

1)

 

2)

 

3)

 

4)

 

5)

 

Che would become a symbol of the perfect revolutionary

 

 

Urban Guerilla Warfare

      Abraham Guillén-- Strategy of Urban Guerilla

He maintained Che’s reliance on rural foco was misguided because it

1)

 

2)

 

      Tupamaros of Uruguay

             Pioneered urban guerilla warfare in LA

 

             Tried to avoid bloodshed whenever possible

 

             As repression increased—lost popular support

 

             Military repression heightened

                   Lost popular support

 

                   No consideration of human rights

 

      Chile—Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR)

             University of Concepción

            

             Wiped out by Pinochet when he took power in 1973

 

      Brazil

            Carlos Marighela Manual of the Urban Guerilla

            

 

      Argentina

              Monteneros

             Were Peronist, followers of ousted President Juan Peron

            

            

            Military coup in 1976 began the “dirty war”

 

      By 1978 most urban guerillas defeated

 

Second phase:

     

El Salvador

    10,000 guerillas

     Led by Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front FMLN

 

Guatemala

     6,000 guerillas

     Led by Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity URNG

                  

Negotiated peace

 

 

Peru

            Shining Path--Maoist group

 

             President Fugimori

 

            Abimael Guzman was captured in 1992

 

            People paid high price    

 

             Shining Path today

 

             Shining Path is one guerilla group that did practice terrorism

 

Colombia

      Situation

            Relationship between the military and the elites

 

      Guerillas

  Armed struggle is not the cause but the result of the violence

                    FARC

                    ELN

 

      Amnesty and Death

             Union Patriot Party

 

      Paramilitary

 

      Killing and Kidnapping

According to the Colombian Commission of Jurists

2%

18%

78%

 

            Kidnapping

 

      Drugs

            Guerillas

 

            Military and paramilitaries          

 

      Peace Efforts

 

 

      Military Solution

              President Uribe

 

      What do the guerillas want?

 

 

The Nicaraguan Revolution

     

      US marines fought a guerilla war against

             Augusto Sandino

 

            

National Guard

 

      Anastasio Somoza

 

      Somoza assumed the Presidency--personalistic regime--last 43 years

 

      Somoza was Washington’s man in Central America

            

 

      Would be assassinated in 1956

Luis

             Tachito in 1967

 

      Somozas would end up owning

 

 

Tolerated initially by the elites

 

      Maintained their hold on power

 

      Sandinista National Liberation Front FSLN

             Carlos Fonseca

 

      1972 Earthquake was turning point in the struggle

            

 

      Assassination of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro

            

 

      Sandinistas captured national attention when 25 of them in a daring operation

captured the entire National Congress and others

 

      US Withdrew Support

             Killing of Bill Stewart

     

Somocista sin Somoza

 

      Sandinists formed broad front

            Downplay their socialist orientation and focus on ousting Somoza

 

             Announced the “final offensive” on May 30, 1979

     

 

What factors allowed the Sandinistas to succeed in their revolution?

      Same as Cuba—this is the magic formula

      1)

 

      2)

 

      3)

 

      4)

 

      5)

 

      Only difference

     

Nicaragua Revolution was one of the most promising revolutions ever

Popular revolution

 

Unique blend of

      nationalism

 

      Marxism

 

      Human rights

 

      Christianity

 

Pride, joy, and hope of the people

 

High ethical calling of the revolutionary

     

 

Nicaraguan would not have the influence that the Cuban Revolution had

      1)

 

      2)

 

      3)

 

      4)

 

Sandinista Government

      Open political system     

 

 

      Social services and land reform 

 

 

      Mixed economy

     

 

An evaluation of the Sandinista Revolution

      Inter-American Development Bank

      Oxfam International

      The World Council of Churches

     

 

Why did other guerilla movements failed

      1)

 

2)

 

3)

 

What would make you start a revolution?

 

Conclusion

     How could the elites has reacted to this revolutionary period?

             1)

 

             2)

 

             3)