US Involvement in Latin America


Preface to U.S. Involvement


How many military conflicts has the US been in since 1890?



      Why do not know


The truth is out there

US foreign policy—you are not going to like

Not new, nor has it been hidden

It is just not main stream


Everything that I present can be found in the library here on campus

But very few Americans read



Allen Dulles—Warren Commission on the assassination of JFK contained inconsistencies



Have to make an effort


A paradigm shift—a change in perspective or worldview

      Process—not pleasant

      Similar to the experience of people who are dying

             1st reaction denial


             Then anger


             Then depression


             Last is acceptance


T.S. Eliot once wrote, "Human kind cannot bear very much reality."



Why truth about Columbus and the information that I am about to present to you, is not taught to you in the schools


Educational system

What is the basic purpose of the educational system?



Fundamental purpose of all education systems


Real education is always dangerous to the powers that be who seek to maintain their hold on power


           Socrates was executed


                   American writer H.L. Mencken said:


Education as indoctrination is a way of controlling the minds of people




             US educational system was copied from the Prussian system—one of the first

                   universal educational systems designed to create obedient and patriotic citizens


             In 1888, the Senate Committee on Education



             The men who designed, funded, and implemented America's formal educational

                   system in the late 1800s and early 1900s, were very clear about what they believed public

                   education should do.

                         Elwood Cubberly



                         The corporate and political elites explicitly wanted an educational system



                         In 1889 the US Commissioner of Education, William Torrey Harris



                        The duty of the public educator


                                    In terms of history,


                                    All current events that we observe are filtered through that assumption


                                           For example: Experiment



                                    We interpret current events in terms of what we have been taught



                                    Events which are obviously inconsistent with our programming are



                                    Constitution—good example—Assignment 8

                                           Federalist Papers Number 10



Result of public education system


     Status quo—the system under the control of the elites is perpetuated


     Mandatory public education has not been a failure, but success


     Taught to think and act to benefit elites


Indoctrination does not end with high school


      We have been taught to believe and most people do believe that education is the way to

             solve all our problems


             Research reveals educated more war-like and slavish to political leaders


             What is the reasons for this:









      People who are the object of the greatest indoctrination are Phd candidates


             Must be trusted since work alone and are leaders


             Jeff Schmidt in his book Disciplined Minds analysis Phd education


      Visible example:



Reason that most college professors have been educated to be liberal

      Gatekeepers—to limit what is permissible thought


             For example:



Also, there is always a great deal of pressure to conform—to be servants

of system—perpetuating the myths that maintain the status quo

      Lynne Cheney


      So the threat is that you either conform or you can lose your job



Look at the educational system realistically


      U.S. difference



      Victors write history books



      The educational system is just one part of the “perception management” system

             Perception management is the current euphemism for thought control or brainwashing

             Other major parts of the system are

                   Major media

                   TV and movies




             Taught not used in democracies, but only in authoritarian governments

             But just the opposite is true


             Propaganda is to democracy as force is to dictatorships


             CIA’s budget for propaganda


             Tools are incredible

                   Manipulating video in real time


Bottom Line: Control



There is a difference between the common people of American and the government—there are two Americas






     People of foreign countries used to be more aware of this—they did not hold American

             people responsible for actions of their government

      But since actions of US so blatant


      Americans must be aware


      Aware and doing nothing about it—so responsible     


      Americans have limited awareness


             Foreign student




      American people ultimately responsible


      But most Americans do not know what government is doing


 Really is two Americas


For example, 71% of American citizens


Recognition of this is essential to understanding US foreign policy


      One America is the people of America

      All the good of America is embodied in the people of American—not the government


            Our rights, our freedoms, and our prosperity has been secured by the common American people

                   by fighting elites


             Americans not educated in this

                   Read Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the 20th Century


             This is 99% of America—lots to love and be proud of


      Other America is that of the rich and powerful

             Sociologist C. Wright Mills in his book The Power Elite characterizes the Power Elite as








Important to realize



             Wright warns

                   Not moral examples


                   Money chief value


                   Elites motives for acting


                   Elites always unified


                         Proper paradigm


             Fitsgerald "The rich are not like you and me."


             LA elite and American embassy personnel very much alike


             All elites alike


      Elites control US foreign policy


      How elites pursued their agenda in Latin America


      Elites do not represent American people


      “Your government is not your country”


Brief summary of US Involvement in Latin America


Monroe Doctrine 1823


Territorial acquisition

1845 President Polk instigated a war with Mexico


      1903 Panama region for the US canal


Dollar Diplomacy

      1900 to 1930’s US maintained stability in Central America by sending in the marines

      US sent the marines to

Honduras in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-25

Dominican Republic in 1904, 1914, 1916-1934

Cuba 1906, 1912, 1917-1933

Nicaragua in 1907, 1911, 1912-1933

Mexico in 1914, 1916-1918, and nine more times

Haiti 1914-1934

Panama in 1901, 1908, 1912, 1918, 1925;

Guatemala 1920

El Salvador 1932

      Stability is a key foreign policy objective


      So the bottom line in all US foreign policy is  __________


      Examples of the extent of US business interest in LA:


      Major General Smedley Butler, twice awarded the Medal of Honor (1914, 1917),

             commanded the marines in the operations to maintain order in LA


             In a speech he made in 1933 he said:

"War is just a racket... 


             Conclusion—US military used to secure elites economic interests



Good Neighbor Policy

     1933-1980 US Supports Dictators in LA to protect economic interests


     Good neighbor because


      Effect the same


By 1954 dictators ruled in 13 out of 20 LA countries


1980 to Present—Elite Democracy

William I. Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy : Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony


      Support elites in LA who protect economic elites interests


      Not democracy


Motives of US foreign policy

      US on top of the world after WWII


      Elites in the UU pursue two far-reaching goals that they had:





      1) To perpetuate the military industrial complex

            Created and perpetuated by


             Elites like this kind of spending

                   1) It makes them wealthy



                   Incidents that led to US involvement in every war since the Mexican War were

                                rigged or set up by our own government


                                Mexican War


                                Spanish American War










                                1st Gulf War








                         War is good for business



                                War do not just happen


                                      International bankers financed Nazis and Communism


                               Examples how elites make money in war     


                                      International bankers financed rise of Hitler and Russian Revolution


                                            Oswald Spengler—communism financed by bankers


                                      US Banks, corporations, and famous families contribute to Nazi war effort






                                      Soviet Union armed by US

                                            Anthony Sutton in his book The Best Enemy Money Can Buy


                                      China helped by US

                                            1995 GAO Report




                                Example how elites make money

                                      Bush family example how elites make money

                                            Prescot Bush


                                            George Bush and Iraq


                                                   Carlyle Group—n business with Bin Laden family


                                            George W.


                                            George H.W. Bush’s admission to White House Reporter Sarah McClellen


                                            True of most of Rich and Powerful families



                                FDR—Important Quote



                        Two Views of History

                                      Accidental View of History

                                            This view of education, media, government, majority of people


                                      This view asserts that events in history basically occur by accident 


                                                   It is favored by the Power Elites


                                            Conspiracy View of History

                                                   This view holds that major events in history are the result of careful planning


                                                   Also events which occasionally do arise which are not preplanned


                                                   This is the cause and effect view of history


                                                   This is a minority view of history and used by elites


                                                   Effective thought control





Examples of how elites make money from war


      Why can’t the government stop this?


2) Another reason that the elites like military spending is they always have

      military muscle on hand to enforce will



3) Prevents egalitarian wealth


      What would our society be like...





      Cannot justify not using industrial capacity


      Keep industry going without enriching masses



To be able to continue military Keynesianism--need an enemy and war

      Former CIA official and author John Stockwell


USSR was the most likely enemy for two reasons:





      Security as a motive verified by

             $80 billion transferred to Eastern Europe


      Only a single instance of attempting to expand since WWII


      Nation Security Advisor Zbigniew BrzezinskiUs goaded Russia into attacking


      Something was needed to whip up the emotions against the USSR



Several Reports Would Turn the USSR into a Credible Enemy


     NSC document 68












      Reports presented a Manichean perspective





      Purpose of the report:

             Dean Acheson revealed that the purpose of this report was


                   Treetop propaganda


             Effect of the Report:










             The elites had their war--the Cold War




            Senator Vandenbury


            Michael Kelly







Samuel Huntington advised officials  in the Reagan administration that they





2) The second far-reaching goal for the elites was to establish a global economic and

political hegemony


             Policy Planning Study 23—top secret intradepartmental document written in 1948

by George Kennan


                   “...we have about 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3% of its

population....In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity....To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and day-dreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives....We should cease to talk about vague and...unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.”


Analysis  of Policy Planning statement 23:

1)    Because we have half of the world’s wealth but only little of the population,

we are going to be the object of envy and resentment

2)    Real task


3)   We have to deal in straight power concepts


4)  Concentrate our attention everywhere on out immediate national objectives


5) To do so—we have to

Dispense with

                                      Sentimentality and daydreaming

                                Cease to talk about

Vague and unreal objectives

                                      Idealistic slogans hamper us—slow us down, impede us

                                What is sentimentality; day-dreaming; vague and unreal objectives; and

idealistic slogans?


In 1948 US foreign policy objectives set—contrary to what American people led to believe

                   Use power to


                   Objective should not be hindered by


                   Historical record


What were our national objectives?

             Elite objectives


      War-Peace Studies Program

             Grand Area for world control


Grand Area


                   Western HemisphereCanada, Mexico, Central and South America

                   Western Europe—defeated Germany and all of Western Europe

                   Far East—especially defeated Japan

                   Former British empire which was disintegrating

                   Middle East—with all the oil

                   Rest of Third World—source of raw materials and markets

             Control much of world


What can stop us from accomplishing our objectives?


             Russia never considered a serious military threat


             The real threat was Russia’s political power

George Kennan


                   What is Russia’s political power?

                         Social equality


                         Economic equality


             The great “threat” of communism—successful example

                   That it would be successful example



             The real threat on the home front in the Cold War


             Russia not a threat but communism was


             Keeping the world capitalism is more important than making money




                   Not allowed to peruse independent course of development




2)Third World Nationalism











      Nationalism characterized by things like:








      What kind of Government


      Why a threat to US power elite?



      Is democracy bad for business—maximizing short run profits?



          Is democracy a threat to long range business prosperity and growth?



             Why can’t corporations function based on long termed profits?



Characteristics of governments good for capitalism and business:











      What kind of government is being described here?




      This is the reason that the US has always supported dictatorships rather than

             democratic governments in the 3rd world

                         Authoritarian governments facilitate capital accumulation


                         Elites already in control


                                US policy to maintain status quo


             US destroys democracies


                         US support LA governments that use violence to protect our resources


                         Only dictatorships have the power


                         Kennedy—replace 9 civilian with military governments


                         Historian Thomas Carothers, who served in the Reagan administration,


             Lars Schoultz—correlation between aid and torture


                   Most US aid is military aid


                         Tied aid


                   US gives the kind of aid that helps US business


                   Foreign Assistance Act 1961—aid had two purposes





                   FAA created USAID

                         Frank Coffin


                   President Eisenhower


                   Principle: Foreign aid is largely________________






             Schoultz’s  findings confirmed by Edward Herman

                   Correlation between aid and favorable business environment


                   Relationship between business, aid, and torture

                         What adds to or subtracts from favorable business environment





Human rights workers



                   So countries with high US business presence



                         which is used


                   Human rights abuse essential to exploit




                   People must be controlled


                   Michael Parenti



How could the US justify opposing 3rd world democratic nationalism?


             Justified targeting 3rd world democratic nationalism by claiming Soviet Union


They could do this because there is a similarity



             So how do you tell them apart?

                   US ambassador to Guatemala, Robert Patterson, developed the Duck test to determine what was communism

Duck test



                         Peasant cooperatives

                         Labor Unions

                         Student Organizations

Political parties

                         Human rights organizations

                         Church groups


They are all communists


                         Lump them all together

                                US justified in opposing if Communist


                                But not if just want democracy


                         So they all have to be communist


1963 US Military Manual


Guatemalan Foreign Minister, Guillermo Toriello


All these aspects of nationalism linked to Russian communism to justify destruction


                         The truth was hidden from the American people


                               US ambassador to Panama, Amber Moss



      For 50 years pursuing objective of elites


      Objective threatened by



      All labeled communism



      Elites control US foreign policy—not the American people


      Primary purpose is to make money


      Get rid of governments and people who interfere


      US foreign policy that simple



This truth revealed by US's first major involvement in LA was to overthrow

      the democratic government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954

      Dictatorship of General Jorge Ubico ruled Guatemala since 1930 


      Rebellion in 1944


      Juan José Arévalo was elected President—85% of vote



             Intellectual and educator

             Inspired by FDR’s New Deal


             Do things characterized as independent nationalism


             Good for democracy—bad for business


      Jacobo Arbenz

             Elected to the Presidency in 1950


1)“To convert Guatemala from a dependent nation with a semi-colonial

            economy into a economically independent country;

2)to transform our nation from a backward nation with a predominantly

            feudal economy into a modern capitalist country; and

3)to accomplish this transformation in a manner that brings the greatest

            possible elevation of the living standard of the great mass of people.”

 Also, foreign capital welcome as long as…


             Arbenz's intent


                   Democracy is just as threatening as communism


             Strategy to achieve goals—import-substitution industrialization

                   Expand purchasing power of population


                   Land reform


                         United Fruit Company (US owned corporation growing bananas)


                         1952 Agrarian Reform Law 

                   Expropriated all idle land holdings over 223 acres


                   Arbenz even expropriated


                   Expropriated 400,000 acres of UFC’s land


                                100,000 peasants families received 1.5 million acres


                                Compensation by governments bonds


                   This prompted the US to overthrow the government of  Guatemala


                         CIA’s Guatemalan overthrow was codenamed "Operation Success"


                         Begin a reign of terror that would claim 200,000 lives


                         US denied any responsibility or involvement


                   Perhaps even more important is how the American people were manipulated to

                         fear communists in Guatemala


                         Bernays’ book Propaganda published in 1929



Why could the US not tolerate Arbenz’s democratic government?

     Communism was not the issue


      The decisive issue was the expropriation of the land of the UFC


      Threat of a good example

             US State Department Official said in 1954



      Radicalization of LA’s politics

             Had Arbenz remained in office


His downfall





             In Guatemala at the time of the CIA’s overthrow of Arbenz was Che Guevara


      Fidel Castro


      US would not let these countries progress


             As a consequence, the only thing left was


How would the US fight against 3rd world democratic nationalism?


National Security Act 1947


      Single most significant even in US history


National Security Act changed the nature of the U.S.


Democracy impossible


      Created the CIA with power to

             Covert operations


             By 1953


      Function of the CIA

             Ralph McGhee, a 25 year veteran of the CIA, says in his book Deadly Deceits that:

                   The CIA is not intelligence agency


                   CIA is a covert action agency—secret army of President


                   Acts as anti-intelligence agency


                         1) James Bamford







                   CIA's propaganda network extensive


                         Third of budget propagandizing Americans




                         Operation Mockingbird


                                Former CIA director William Colby said


                         Cooperation with media


                         Dan Rather


                         Philip Graham


                         Media—corporate entity with close ties to CIA




                   No history of supporting democracy


                   Michael Parenti




             The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987


             William Blum--American Holocaust



Cold War Strategy--Distinction between public propaganda and reality

      Public propaganda:

             Secretary of State John Foster Dulles



             Hoover or Doolittle Report

                   “There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto accepted norms of human

                   conduct do not apply....If the U.S. is to survive, long-standing American

                   concepts of fair play must be reconsidered....We must learn to subvert,

                   sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated,

                   more effective methods than those used against us.”

             End justifies the means


 CIA’s major covert operations follow the same script over and over again

                   Overthrow of government of Iran in 1953, Guatemala 1954



The Alliance for Progress was another strategy to deal with the threats to the objectives of the elites

      Provided economic aid to LA

To spark economic development


Strategy classic western liberalism


             But in LA did not work







      Military training and equipment for LA military

      1) Civic Action Program


      2) Standardization   


      3) Counterinsurgency Training





      Before 1960 LA military was trained and directed toward



      After 1960 the US shifted the focus of LA military training



      Origins of the Death Squads in LA

The 1968  Tet Offensive in Vietnam


             Phoenix Program



                   Torture was routinely used in the interrogation process


                   A former military-intelligence officer in Vietnam, K. Barton Osborn,


                   Michael Uhl  testified that


                   Ex-CIA agent John Stockwell


Program was highly successful

Ex-CIA director William Colby admits



                         It was not important that many innocent people were killed


                   Death squads not new for US


             Phoenix Program in LA

                   Answer to problems facing LA brought on by Cuban Revolution


                   US train LA military


                   Washington Post


Guatemalan officers trained at the G-2 headquarters in the Guatemalan by CIA

Former chief of staff, General Morales


                         General Victores--military dictator from 1983 to 1986


                   In 1996 Human Rights Watch released a report called "Colombia's Killer Networks:

                  the Military-Paramilitary Partnership and the U.S" which documented


                   So death squads


                   Edward Herman


      School of Americas

             Most of the counterinsurgency training given to LA military was done so at the School of Americas


In 1996 it was officially admitted by the U.S. government


             Recently released training manuals reveal


             SOA has trained


             Majority of human rights abusers in LA were graduates of the School in America



             Senators Dewine and Voinovich



                   What is wrong with this assumption?


             Real purpose of the SOA



             So has the SOA accomplished its purpose?


                   Edward Herman


      Attempts to close the School of Americas


             Name changed to the Defense Institute for Hemispheric Security Cooperation 


             No longer teach torture


                         Who are the insurgents?


             New bill before Congress: H.R. 1820 to close School


      Other Training and Assistance

More than 150 training centers in the US and in foreign countries


100,000 each year


              1) The Office of Public Safety's  International Police Academy in Washington

                   Trained policemen from around the world to combat communism


             2) CIA Bomb School

Los Fresnos, TX


             3) Other Agencies that Train or Equip LA Military

International Narcotics Control (INC)

Funding of equipment, training, eradication and other programs of the State Department’s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL)

International Military Education and Training (IMET)

Funding for courses given both in the U.S. and in-country by U.S. personnel

Expanded IMET
IMET that pays for training in non-combat subjects

Foreign Military Financing (FMF)
Grants and loans for defense articles, training and services

Presidential authority to grant defense articles, training and services from the
U.S. arsenal

Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
Government-to-government sales of defense articles, training and services

Direct Commercial Sales (DCS)
Sales from
U.S. companies licensed by the U.S. government

Excess Defense Articles (EDA)

Defense articles leased by the
U.S. government

International Criminal Investigations and Training Program (ICITAP)
Law-enforcement training provided by the Department of Justice

Anti-Terrorism Assistance (ATA)
Weapons, equipment and training for prevention and management of terrorism

Discretionary Funding
Counter narcotics support from the White House's Office for National Drug Control Policy

Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC)
A policy initiative, using funds from other programs, to improve militaries' peacekeeping skills

Major Non-Nato Ally (MNNA) Status



      Since WWII, $200 billion, training 2.3 million from 80 countries

             Primary purpose of training


      Training foreign soldiers pushed after Vietnam


      Result in increase in human rights abuse


      In LA this responsible for 80-90% of the killing


      Could not happen without acquiescence and tax dollars of American people


Go through our Presidents highlighting a little of their involvement in LA


      Responsible for the CIA coup in Guatemala in 1954



      Bay of Pigs invasion 1961

             CIA train 1400 Cuban exiles to invade Cuba


             CIA maintained


             US aircraft




             Invasion a disaster



                   Castro's army


                   Kennedy lied


                   Cuban exile blame Kennedy


             Bay of Pigs Declassified

Kennedy felt deceived by CIA




Cuban Missile Crisis Oct 1962

             Cuba and USSR believed


             To deter the US and retaliate


             Kennedy had three options







             Kennedy rejected diplomatic solution


                   Turned down the simple solution


             Chose third alternative


                   Needlessly brought world close to nuclear war


                   Khrushchev willing to accept humiliation


             1992 conference reveal how close the world came to nuclear war

                   CIA was wrong


                   Other things that could have trigger nuclear war



      Castro’s Cuba must be destroyed because it is a Threat of a Good Example

             A CIA report said of Cuba in 1964 that



             In July 1961 the CIA warned



      Kennedy tried to get all LA countries to declare that Cuba was a threat to

             hemispheric security


      It was Kennedy who said in 1962 that


      It was Kennedy that made the position of the US very clear: He said that if there

             was a danger of a Castro, then we will always support a Trujillo


US Terrorism Against Cuba

             3,500 Cubans killed


      A few of the schemes to kill or discredit Castro:


      The Second Coming of Christ


      Operation Mongoose—to disrupt Cuban economy


             Robert Kennedy





             Richard Helms, direction of CIA


             Orland Bosch bomb Cuban airliner killing 73 people


             Body of Secrets by James Bamford

                   Operation Northwoods—create pretexts to justify invasion of Cuba


US tries to blame Cuba for anything bad it can think of

      Chemical weapons


      Connection to terrorism


      Shark attacks



US still classifies Cuba as a terrorist nation

      Center for International Policy


What the American people were told

      Kennedy said



      Ecuador 1960-1963

             Angered because President Velasco would not break relations with Cuba


             CIA agent Philip Agee documents what was done in his book Inside the Company



             In 1964 the US was instrumental in overthrowing President Goulart


             Goulart's crimes:



             Detect the pattern of kinds of governments US against


             US conspired with military to seize power


             US ambassador Lincoln Gordon

                   At first denied


                   Decisive victory for freedom


             The military would institute a 20 year period of repression and torture


                   The official investigation of the murder and torture in Brazil said that "one of

                         the first officials to introduce [torture] into Brazil was


                   19 year old blame US


             Spend $2 billion to protect $1.6 billion


Guatemala and Peru




             Plan Lazo  "The Noose Plan”



      Dominican Republic

             The US set up Trujillo as the dictator of Dominican Republic for 30 years


             Juan Bosch elected President


When Bosch would not come down hard on the Left


             Failed Duck test




             Transferred from Brazil, Dan Mitrione, the head of the US Office of Public Safety in Uruguay


             Demonstrations using beggars


             His motto was, "The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect."


Kidnapped by the Tupamaros


             At his funeral White House spokesman, Ron Ziegler, said,




             US corporations-85% industry


Allende, a socialist, threatened


Plot to overthrow began when Donald Kenadall of Pepsi called President Nixon


             Nixon called


US ambassador to Chile, Edward Korry


             CIA cable to US State Department


Ex-CIA chief John McCone


             David Rockefeller


             Allende could not be tolerated

                   Contrary to claim


                   The only thing worse


             Kissinger would say



             $10 million allotted to destroy Chilean economy


                   US ambassador to Chile


Began plotting with military for a coup of Allende


Nixon and Kissinger made it known that


             The coup was carried out by General Pinoche 9-11-73



             Torture not important

                   Threat of a good example


             Recently declassified secret documents reveal that the CIA may have given

Pinochet's government the go-ahead to murder

Two US citizens, Charles Horman, 31, and Frank Teruggi, 24,


One newly declassified memo said,



      Retied Chilean air force officer Rafael Agustin González


President Ford said



                   U.S. helped in the car bomb assassination of Orlando LetelierAllende's ambassador to the US in Washington, D.C.



                   Kissinger's had meeting with Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet on June 8, 1976 and the documents reveal







      Vice President Nelson Rockefeller





      Get over our "inordinate fear of Communism"

      Attempted to make human rights the fulcrum of US foreign policy



      In spite of the fact that very little was actually done to support human rights in

             LA—it had a significant impact in LA



      In the end the policy was a failure

             Carter an aberration—wait out         


             Carter not willing to endure instability




After he was elected but before he took office, he sent a transition team to


      Speech in 1983 called Russia the “focus of evil in the modern world”


             Reagan not going to let El Salvador and Nicaragua go the way Cuba did


             Policy now is to “rollback” Communism in LA




      Most of the massacres took place in the 1980's during the administration of Rios Montt


Reagan told the


             Godfather of the death squads Sandoval Alarcón


             The Washington Post


             The Washington Office on Latin America


             In Guatemala City, right-wing terrorists


American Catholic missionary Sister Dianna Ortiz


      SOA graduate General Hector Gramajo


      Gramajo explained his new humanitarian policy


Reagan condemns Poland for human rights violation


      The report of the UN Historical Clarification Commission


      Council on Hemispheric Affairs


El Salvador

      A million dollar a day for ten years


      Elites steal and put in Miami banks


Reagan’s ambassador to the UN, Kirkpatrick,


      Alexander Haig, Chief of Staff, said


      The Massacre of Mazote

             The Reagan administration did everything they could to cover it up

             No one in congress really wanted to hear the truth anyway




             The military of  El Salvador knew how the Americans thought



             The Jesuit journal in El Salvador, the Proceso, compared how the Soviet Union and

its satellites treated their dissidents with the way the US and its satellites treated their dissidents:



Guatemalan journalist Julio Goday wrote that



      Evidence that US actually participated in the torture

             A Salvadorian deserter gave testimony to Raymond Bonner of the New York Times


      A U.N. Truth Commission report




      Baltimore Sun did a four part series on the CIA and the Honduran death Battalion 316

      US create, trained, and covered up death battalion


      Torture training--Richard Stolz, then deputy director for operations


      John Negroponte



      Sandinistas in Nicaragua also must be made to fail

             State Department official in 1981 boasted that we would



             Secretary of State George Shultz called the Sandinistas a

                   If the Sandinistas succeed in consolidating their power, then all the other LA countries will be

      emboldened to follow—the threat of a good example


      Nicaragua is a good example of the kinds of government that the US foreign policy is

             against and the kinds it supports

                   Nicaragua’s government help people


                         But us allies in Central America--Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador


                   Nicaragua did not kill its own people


                         US allies

                               Guatemala 200,000

                                El Salvador 75,0000

                                Honduras     50,000


                   According to US foreign policy agenda, why does this make sense?


      Reagan said Nicaragua was threat to US National Security



      Could not use US troops to invade NicaraguaVietnam syndrone

             1983 Washington Post/ABC News poll


             Power of American people if they know


      The other way was the Contras

             Terrorist organized and funded by the CIA--later called Nicaragua Democratic

Force FDN

Made up of ex-National Guardsmen


Poor Nicaraguans and Honduran made up the fighting units


             Recruit by kidnapping


             Reagan would refer to them as the "democratic resistance" and as "freedom fighters"


National guard made up most of the unit commanders


      CIA hired a Miami public relations firm, Woody Kepner Associates to create

             a positive image for the Contra


      Contra purpose to wear out Nicaraguans


Its target were soft targets


Edgar Chamorro,


Ex-CIA John Stockwell


                   Former director of the CIA, Stansfield Turner called the Contras terrorists


                   Number of dead


                   Total cost for US




             That the Contra supply network also operated as a pipeline to get illegal drugs into the US


Gary Webb of the Mercury News



Oliver North


The country of Costa banned US personnel as drug traffickers


This is standard procedure of CIA



The so-called War on Drugs is not really a war—strategy to manage economic and political interests


      1) $300 billion


      2) Intervention


      3) Distracts


      4) Population control


      5) Private prisons


      6) Drives down wages



             US has 2,200,000 in prison as of June 2005

             One in every 134 Americans

             25% of world

             Americans in correctional supervision 6.9 million—one in every 32 Americans

             African-American males targetted



             Drug war not lost--successful





1990 elections

      US Strategy to demand elections


             US supports the opposition


             Finances opposition


      Illegal in the US


      Usually successful


      Public announcement that democracy triumphed


             Sandinistas consent to


                   US influence enormous



                         War and embargo would continue


                   Nicaraguan people gave US what wanted


                   US has used same tactics twice since




                   Since 1950 US interfered in 35 elections in 30 countries


Nicaragua destroyed and revolution undone


But strategy worked

People tired or embargo and war


             Sacrifice of people


             Hidden horror for American people



      Invasion of Panama  12/20/89

             Operation Just Cause


      Drugs were not the issue


             Real issue was that the Panama Canal would pass into the hands of the Panamanian

                   government on Jan 1, 2000


             Up to 4000 civilian deaths


             House of Rep passed a resolution commending Bush for his handling of the invasion

                   Passed 389 to 26

             Just 8 months later on Aug 2, 1990 Suddam Hussein invaded Kuwait

                   Bush responded by saying that


             Did the US succeed in keeping the Canal?





             Guerillas FARC and ELN threatening capital accumulation in US’s backyard

             Drug war is smokescreen for real target—the guerillas



      President Hugo Chávez—won Presidency by huge majorities


      US was involved in an attempt to overthrow Chávez in May 2002


      Why is US trying to get rid of Chávez?

             Using oil profits to help people


             Refused to follow US neoliberal model


             Setting up an alternative to capitalism


             Standing up to US


      Threat of a good example


             Venezuela US’s 3rd largest oil producer


      Coup on April 11, 2002


            Carried out by wealthy with advice and consent of Otto Reich of US State Department

                   Wayne Madsen


                   US provided Intelligence


                   Financed by US


                   US military on border

             Pedro Carmona took over government

He  immediately abolished the Congress, Supreme Court, etc.—establishing a dictatorship


             Every country in LA condemned the coup as a violation of international law


             Only the US government and major media came out in support of the coupsters



      Within two days the Coup was reversed by the people


             Victory for people


             Internet news


      Not over yet

             Miguel Bustamante Madriz


             President Chavez


             Next time



      Paramilitaries financed by US drove out President Aristide


      Aristide’s sin



In Your Name: A Soldier's Story by Stan Goff


      Like Smedley Butler fought only for elites



Myth vs Reality


      Michael Parenti






             Dr. Robert M. Bowman, Lt. Col., USAF wrote to President Bush



Summary US foreign policy




William Blum says it best—American foreign policy is driven by four motives:









Conclusion to US Involvement in LA:

      US brought about deaths in LA


      Information is not in question


      Truth painful experience


             Most of time Americans do not know what government is doing


      Distinction between Americans and government

             Henry Kissinger


             Iraq soldiers lacking body armor


             Depleted uranium





      According to international law, people still responsible

             Nuremberg Trials


             Daniel Goldhagen's 1996 book Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans

                         and the Holocaust


             Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson reminds us of our responsibility in a

                   representative government



             Edward Abbey



      Still responsible



      Worst mau yet to come