US Involvement in Latin America

 

Preface to U.S. Involvement

 

How many military conflicts has the US been in since 1890?

      What

      Why

      Why do not know

 

The truth is out there

US foreign policy—you are not going to like

Not new, nor has it been hidden

It is just not main stream

 

Everything that I present can be found in the library here on campus

But very few Americans read

 

 

Allen Dulles—Warren Commission on the assassination of JFK contained inconsistencies

 

 

Have to make an effort

 

A paradigm shift—a change in perspective or worldview

      Process—not pleasant

      Similar to the experience of people who are dying

             1st reaction denial

 

             Then anger

 

             Then depression

 

             Last is acceptance

 

T.S. Eliot once wrote, "Human kind cannot bear very much reality."

 

 

Why truth about Columbus and the information that I am about to present to you, is not taught to you in the schools

 

Educational system

What is the basic purpose of the educational system?

 

    

Fundamental purpose of all education systems

    

Real education is always dangerous to the powers that be who seek to maintain their hold on power

                

           Socrates was executed

 

                   American writer H.L. Mencken said:

                        

Education as indoctrination is a way of controlling the minds of people

    

 

Background

             US educational system was copied from the Prussian system—one of the first

                   universal educational systems designed to create obedient and patriotic citizens

 

             In 1888, the Senate Committee on Education

 

 

             The men who designed, funded, and implemented America's formal educational

                   system in the late 1800s and early 1900s, were very clear about what they believed public

                   education should do.

                         Elwood Cubberly

 

 

                         The corporate and political elites explicitly wanted an educational system

 

 

                         In 1889 the US Commissioner of Education, William Torrey Harris

 

                        

                        The duty of the public educator

 

                                    In terms of history,

 

                                    All current events that we observe are filtered through that assumption

                                          

                                           For example: Experiment

                                                

 

                                    We interpret current events in terms of what we have been taught

                                                

 

                                    Events which are obviously inconsistent with our programming are

                                          

 

                                    Constitution—good example—Assignment 8

                                           Federalist Papers Number 10

 

 

Result of public education system

 

     Status quo—the system under the control of the elites is perpetuated

 

     Mandatory public education has not been a failure, but success

 

     Taught to think and act to benefit elites

 

Indoctrination does not end with high school

 

      We have been taught to believe and most people do believe that education is the way to

             solve all our problems

            

             Research reveals educated more war-like and slavish to political leaders

 

             What is the reasons for this:

                   1)

 

                   2)

 

                   3)

 

                   4)

 

      People who are the object of the greatest indoctrination are Phd candidates

 

             Must be trusted since work alone and are leaders

 

             Jeff Schmidt in his book Disciplined Minds analysis Phd education

 

      Visible example:

 

 

Reason that most college professors have been educated to be liberal

      Gatekeepers—to limit what is permissible thought

 

             For example:

                  

            

Also, there is always a great deal of pressure to conform—to be servants

of system—perpetuating the myths that maintain the status quo

      Lynne Cheney

 

      So the threat is that you either conform or you can lose your job

                  

 

Look at the educational system realistically

     

      U.S. difference

 

 

      Victors write history books

 

 

      The educational system is just one part of the “perception management” system

             Perception management is the current euphemism for thought control or brainwashing

             Other major parts of the system are

                   Major media

                   TV and movies

                   Disinformation

                   Technology

 

             Taught not used in democracies, but only in authoritarian governments

             But just the opposite is true

 

             Propaganda is to democracy as force is to dictatorships

 

             CIA’s budget for propaganda

 

             Tools are incredible

                   Manipulating video in real time

 

Bottom Line: Control

            

 

There is a difference between the common people of American and the government—there are two Americas

 

      1)

 

      2)

 

     People of foreign countries used to be more aware of this—they did not hold American

             people responsible for actions of their government

      But since actions of US so blatant

 

      Americans must be aware

 

      Aware and doing nothing about it—so responsible     

 

      Americans have limited awareness

 

             Foreign student

 

Conclusion

 

      American people ultimately responsible

 

      But most Americans do not know what government is doing

 

 Really is two Americas

 

For example, 71% of American citizens

 

Recognition of this is essential to understanding US foreign policy

            

      One America is the people of America

      All the good of America is embodied in the people of American—not the government

 

            Our rights, our freedoms, and our prosperity has been secured by the common American people

                   by fighting elites

 

             Americans not educated in this

                   Read Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the 20th Century

 

             This is 99% of America—lots to love and be proud of

 

      Other America is that of the rich and powerful

             Sociologist C. Wright Mills in his book The Power Elite characterizes the Power Elite as

                        

 

                   Includes:

1)        

2)        

3)        

4)        

Important to realize

 

 

             Wright warns

                   Not moral examples

 

                   Money chief value

 

                   Elites motives for acting

 

                   Elites always unified

 

                         Proper paradigm

 

             Fitsgerald "The rich are not like you and me."

 

             LA elite and American embassy personnel very much alike

                  

             All elites alike

 

      Elites control US foreign policy

 

      How elites pursued their agenda in Latin America

 

      Elites do not represent American people

 

      “Your government is not your country”

 

Brief summary of US Involvement in Latin America

 

Monroe Doctrine 1823

 

Territorial acquisition

1845 President Polk instigated a war with Mexico

 

      1903 Panama region for the US canal

 

Dollar Diplomacy

      1900 to 1930’s US maintained stability in Central America by sending in the marines

      US sent the marines to

Honduras in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-25

Dominican Republic in 1904, 1914, 1916-1934

Cuba 1906, 1912, 1917-1933

Nicaragua in 1907, 1911, 1912-1933

Mexico in 1914, 1916-1918, and nine more times

Haiti 1914-1934

Panama in 1901, 1908, 1912, 1918, 1925;

Guatemala 1920

El Salvador 1932

      Stability is a key foreign policy objective

 

      So the bottom line in all US foreign policy is  __________

 

      Examples of the extent of US business interest in LA:

 

      Major General Smedley Butler, twice awarded the Medal of Honor (1914, 1917),

             commanded the marines in the operations to maintain order in LA

     

             In a speech he made in 1933 he said:

"War is just a racket... 

 

             Conclusion—US military used to secure elites economic interests

            

                  

Good Neighbor Policy

     1933-1980 US Supports Dictators in LA to protect economic interests

 

     Good neighbor because

 

      Effect the same

 

By 1954 dictators ruled in 13 out of 20 LA countries

 

1980 to Present—Elite Democracy

William I. Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy : Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony

     

      Support elites in LA who protect economic elites interests

 

      Not democracy

 

Motives of US foreign policy

      US on top of the world after WWII

            

      Elites in the UU pursue two far-reaching goals that they had:

             1)

 

             2)

 

      1) To perpetuate the military industrial complex

            Created and perpetuated by

 

             Elites like this kind of spending

                   1) It makes them wealthy

 

 

                   Incidents that led to US involvement in every war since the Mexican War were

                                rigged or set up by our own government

                               

                                Mexican War

 

                                Spanish American War

 

WWI

 

                                WWII

 

                                Korea

 

                                Vietnam

 

                                1st Gulf War

 

                                Yugoslavia

 

                                Iraq

 

                                Iran

 

                         War is good for business

                                Rothschilds

 

                                War do not just happen

 

                                      International bankers financed Nazis and Communism

 

                               Examples how elites make money in war     

 

                                      International bankers financed rise of Hitler and Russian Revolution

 

                                            Oswald Spengler—communism financed by bankers

 

                                      US Banks, corporations, and famous families contribute to Nazi war effort

                                            Examples:

                                                   Ford

 

                                                   IBM

 

                                      Soviet Union armed by US

                                            Anthony Sutton in his book The Best Enemy Money Can Buy

 

                                      China helped by US

                                            1995 GAO Report

 

                                      Haliburton

 

                                Example how elites make money

                                      Bush family example how elites make money

                                            Prescot Bush

 

                                            George Bush and Iraq

                        

                                                   Carlyle Group—n business with Bin Laden family

 

                                            George W.

 

                                            George H.W. Bush’s admission to White House Reporter Sarah McClellen

 

                                            True of most of Rich and Powerful families

 

                         Conclusion           

                                FDR—Important Quote

 

 

                        Two Views of History

                                      Accidental View of History

                                            This view of education, media, government, majority of people

 

                                      This view asserts that events in history basically occur by accident 

 

                                                   It is favored by the Power Elites

 

                                            Conspiracy View of History

                                                   This view holds that major events in history are the result of careful planning

 

                                                   Also events which occasionally do arise which are not preplanned

 

                                                   This is the cause and effect view of history

 

                                                   This is a minority view of history and used by elites

 

                                                   Effective thought control

 

                                      Conclusion:

 

 

Examples of how elites make money from war

 

      Why can’t the government stop this?

 

2) Another reason that the elites like military spending is they always have

      military muscle on hand to enforce will

 

 

3) Prevents egalitarian wealth

 

      What would our society be like...

 

             1)

 

             2)

      Cannot justify not using industrial capacity

 

      Keep industry going without enriching masses

 

 

To be able to continue military Keynesianism--need an enemy and war

      Former CIA official and author John Stockwell

 

USSR was the most likely enemy for two reasons:

      1)  

 

      2)

 

      Security as a motive verified by

             $80 billion transferred to Eastern Europe

 

      Only a single instance of attempting to expand since WWII

 

      Nation Security Advisor Zbigniew BrzezinskiUs goaded Russia into attacking

 

      Something was needed to whip up the emotions against the USSR

 

 

Several Reports Would Turn the USSR into a Credible Enemy

 

     NSC document 68

             1)

                                           

             2)

 

             3)

 

             4)

 

             Concluded

                        

 

      Reports presented a Manichean perspective

             Russia

 

             US

 

      Purpose of the report:

             Dean Acheson revealed that the purpose of this report was

 

                   Treetop propaganda

            

             Effect of the Report:

                   1)

                  

                   2)

 

                   3)  

 

                   4)  

 

      Conclusion:

             The elites had their war--the Cold War

 

1)

 

            Senator Vandenbury

 

            Michael Kelly

 

                   2)

 

 

3)

 

Samuel Huntington advised officials  in the Reagan administration that they

 

                   4)

 

 

2) The second far-reaching goal for the elites was to establish a global economic and

political hegemony

 

             Policy Planning Study 23—top secret intradepartmental document written in 1948

by George Kennan

 

                   “...we have about 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3% of its

population....In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity....To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and day-dreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives....We should cease to talk about vague and...unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.”

 

Analysis  of Policy Planning statement 23:

1)    Because we have half of the world’s wealth but only little of the population,

we are going to be the object of envy and resentment

2)    Real task

                              

3)   We have to deal in straight power concepts

 

4)  Concentrate our attention everywhere on out immediate national objectives

 

5) To do so—we have to

Dispense with

                                      Sentimentality and daydreaming

                                Cease to talk about

Vague and unreal objectives

                                      Idealistic slogans hamper us—slow us down, impede us

                                What is sentimentality; day-dreaming; vague and unreal objectives; and

idealistic slogans?

                                           

In 1948 US foreign policy objectives set—contrary to what American people led to believe

                   Use power to

 

                   Objective should not be hindered by

 

                   Historical record

 

What were our national objectives?

             Elite objectives

 

      War-Peace Studies Program

             Grand Area for world control

 

Grand Area

             Included:

                   Western HemisphereCanada, Mexico, Central and South America

                   Western Europe—defeated Germany and all of Western Europe

                   Far East—especially defeated Japan

                   Former British empire which was disintegrating

                   Middle East—with all the oil

                   Rest of Third World—source of raw materials and markets

             Control much of world

 

What can stop us from accomplishing our objectives?

1)USSR/Communism

             Russia never considered a serious military threat

  

             The real threat was Russia’s political power

George Kennan

 

                   What is Russia’s political power?

                         Social equality

 

                         Economic equality

 

             The great “threat” of communism—successful example

                   That it would be successful example

 

 

             The real threat on the home front in the Cold War

 

             Russia not a threat but communism was

 

             Keeping the world capitalism is more important than making money

 

                   Cuba

 

                   Not allowed to peruse independent course of development

 

                         Yugoslavia

                  

2)Third World Nationalism

     

Nationalism

 

 

                   Independent

 

                   Democratic

 

                   Nationalistic

 

      Nationalism characterized by things like:

             1)

 

             2)

 

             3)

 

             4)

      What kind of Government

 

      Why a threat to US power elite?

 

 

      Is democracy bad for business—maximizing short run profits?

 

 

          Is democracy a threat to long range business prosperity and growth?

            

 

             Why can’t corporations function based on long termed profits?

 

 

Characteristics of governments good for capitalism and business:

      1)

 

      2)

 

      3)

 

      4)

 

      5)

 

      What kind of government is being described here?

            

      Why?

 

      This is the reason that the US has always supported dictatorships rather than

             democratic governments in the 3rd world

                         Authoritarian governments facilitate capital accumulation

 

                         Elites already in control

           

                                US policy to maintain status quo

 

             US destroys democracies

                   Kennan

                         US support LA governments that use violence to protect our resources

 

                         Only dictatorships have the power

 

                         Kennedy—replace 9 civilian with military governments

 

                         Historian Thomas Carothers, who served in the Reagan administration,

 

             Lars Schoultz—correlation between aid and torture

 

                   Most US aid is military aid

 

                         Tied aid

 

                   US gives the kind of aid that helps US business

 

                   Foreign Assistance Act 1961—aid had two purposes

                         1)

 

                         2)

 

                   FAA created USAID

                         Frank Coffin

 

                   President Eisenhower

 

                   Principle: Foreign aid is largely________________

 

                         Taxpayer

 

                         Profits

 

             Schoultz’s  findings confirmed by Edward Herman

                   Correlation between aid and favorable business environment

 

                   Relationship between business, aid, and torture

                         What adds to or subtracts from favorable business environment

Unions

Peasants

Students

Nationalists

Human rights workers

                                Priests

 

                   So countries with high US business presence

                         receive

 

                         which is used

 

                   Human rights abuse essential to exploit

 

                   Propaganda

 

                   People must be controlled

 

                   Michael Parenti

 

 

How could the US justify opposing 3rd world democratic nationalism?

 

             Justified targeting 3rd world democratic nationalism by claiming Soviet Union

 

They could do this because there is a similarity

 

 

             So how do you tell them apart?

                   US ambassador to Guatemala, Robert Patterson, developed the Duck test to determine what was communism

Duck test

 

                   Examples:

                         Peasant cooperatives

                         Labor Unions

                         Student Organizations

Political parties

                         Human rights organizations

                         Church groups

 

They are all communists

 

                         Lump them all together

                                US justified in opposing if Communist

 

                                But not if just want democracy

 

                         So they all have to be communist

 

1963 US Military Manual

 

Guatemalan Foreign Minister, Guillermo Toriello

 

All these aspects of nationalism linked to Russian communism to justify destruction

 

                         The truth was hidden from the American people

 

                               US ambassador to Panama, Amber Moss

 

Conclusion:

      For 50 years pursuing objective of elites

 

      Objective threatened by

 

 

      All labeled communism

 

 

      Elites control US foreign policy—not the American people

 

      Primary purpose is to make money

 

      Get rid of governments and people who interfere

 

      US foreign policy that simple

 

 

This truth revealed by US's first major involvement in LA was to overthrow

      the democratic government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954

      Dictatorship of General Jorge Ubico ruled Guatemala since 1930 

 

      Rebellion in 1944

            

      Juan José Arévalo was elected President—85% of vote

 

      Arévalo

             Intellectual and educator

             Inspired by FDR’s New Deal

                  

             Do things characterized as independent nationalism

 

             Good for democracy—bad for business

                  

      Jacobo Arbenz

             Elected to the Presidency in 1950

             Objectives:

1)“To convert Guatemala from a dependent nation with a semi-colonial

            economy into a economically independent country;

2)to transform our nation from a backward nation with a predominantly

            feudal economy into a modern capitalist country; and

3)to accomplish this transformation in a manner that brings the greatest

            possible elevation of the living standard of the great mass of people.”

 Also, foreign capital welcome as long as…

 

             Arbenz's intent

 

                   Democracy is just as threatening as communism

 

             Strategy to achieve goals—import-substitution industrialization

                   Expand purchasing power of population

                        

                   Land reform

                        

                         United Fruit Company (US owned corporation growing bananas)

 

                         1952 Agrarian Reform Law 

                   Expropriated all idle land holdings over 223 acres

 

                   Arbenz even expropriated

 

                   Expropriated 400,000 acres of UFC’s land

 

                                100,000 peasants families received 1.5 million acres

 

                                Compensation by governments bonds

 

                   This prompted the US to overthrow the government of  Guatemala

 

                         CIA’s Guatemalan overthrow was codenamed "Operation Success"

 

                         Begin a reign of terror that would claim 200,000 lives

     

                         US denied any responsibility or involvement

 

                   Perhaps even more important is how the American people were manipulated to

                         fear communists in Guatemala

 

                         Bernays’ book Propaganda published in 1929

                  

                        

Why could the US not tolerate Arbenz’s democratic government?

     Communism was not the issue

 

      The decisive issue was the expropriation of the land of the UFC

            

      Threat of a good example

             US State Department Official said in 1954

 

 

      Radicalization of LA’s politics

             Had Arbenz remained in office

 

His downfall

             1)

             2)

             3)

 

             In Guatemala at the time of the CIA’s overthrow of Arbenz was Che Guevara

 

      Fidel Castro

 

      US would not let these countries progress

 

             As a consequence, the only thing left was

 

How would the US fight against 3rd world democratic nationalism?

 

National Security Act 1947

 

      Single most significant even in US history

 

National Security Act changed the nature of the U.S.

 

Democracy impossible

 

      Created the CIA with power to

             Covert operations

 

             By 1953

            

      Function of the CIA

             Ralph McGhee, a 25 year veteran of the CIA, says in his book Deadly Deceits that:

                   The CIA is not intelligence agency

                               

                   CIA is a covert action agency—secret army of President

 

                   Acts as anti-intelligence agency

 

                         1) James Bamford

 

 

                         2)

 

                         3)

 

                   CIA's propaganda network extensive

 

                         Third of budget propagandizing Americans

 

                         Own

 

                         Operation Mockingbird

 

                                Former CIA director William Colby said

 

                         Cooperation with media

 

                         Dan Rather

 

                         Philip Graham

 

                         Media—corporate entity with close ties to CIA

 

            

             Summary:

                   No history of supporting democracy

 

                   Michael Parenti

 

                   Overthrow

 

             The Association for Responsible Dissent estimates that by 1987

 

             William Blum--American Holocaust

 

 

Cold War Strategy--Distinction between public propaganda and reality

      Public propaganda:

             Secretary of State John Foster Dulles

                  

      Reality:

             Hoover or Doolittle Report

                   “There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto accepted norms of human

                   conduct do not apply....If the U.S. is to survive, long-standing American

                   concepts of fair play must be reconsidered....We must learn to subvert,

                   sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated,

                   more effective methods than those used against us.”

             End justifies the means

 

 CIA’s major covert operations follow the same script over and over again

                   Overthrow of government of Iran in 1953, Guatemala 1954

 

 

The Alliance for Progress was another strategy to deal with the threats to the objectives of the elites

      Provided economic aid to LA

To spark economic development

 

Strategy classic western liberalism

 

             But in LA did not work

                   1)

 

                   2)

 

                   3)

 

      Military training and equipment for LA military

      1) Civic Action Program

 

      2) Standardization   

 

      3) Counterinsurgency Training

      a)

 

      b)

        

      Before 1960 LA military was trained and directed toward

 

 

      After 1960 the US shifted the focus of LA military training

 

 

      Origins of the Death Squads in LA

The 1968  Tet Offensive in Vietnam

 

             Phoenix Program

                  

 

                   Torture was routinely used in the interrogation process

 

                   A former military-intelligence officer in Vietnam, K. Barton Osborn,

                              

                   Michael Uhl  testified that

 

                   Ex-CIA agent John Stockwell

 

Program was highly successful

Ex-CIA director William Colby admits

 

 

                         It was not important that many innocent people were killed

                        

                   Death squads not new for US

 

             Phoenix Program in LA

                   Answer to problems facing LA brought on by Cuban Revolution

 

                   US train LA military

 

                   Washington Post

 

Guatemalan officers trained at the G-2 headquarters in the Guatemalan by CIA

Former chief of staff, General Morales

 

                         General Victores--military dictator from 1983 to 1986

 

                   In 1996 Human Rights Watch released a report called "Colombia's Killer Networks:

                  the Military-Paramilitary Partnership and the U.S" which documented

 

                   So death squads

 

                   Edward Herman

 

      School of Americas

             Most of the counterinsurgency training given to LA military was done so at the School of Americas

 

In 1996 it was officially admitted by the U.S. government

 

             Recently released training manuals reveal

 

             SOA has trained

 

             Majority of human rights abusers in LA were graduates of the School in America

                  

            

             Senators Dewine and Voinovich

Assumption:

                  

                   What is wrong with this assumption?

                        

             Real purpose of the SOA

                  

 

             So has the SOA accomplished its purpose?

 

                   Edward Herman

 

      Attempts to close the School of Americas

            

             Name changed to the Defense Institute for Hemispheric Security Cooperation 

     

             No longer teach torture

                   Counterinsurgency

                         Who are the insurgents?

 

             New bill before Congress: H.R. 1820 to close School

 

      Other Training and Assistance

More than 150 training centers in the US and in foreign countries

 

100,000 each year

 

              1) The Office of Public Safety's  International Police Academy in Washington

                   Trained policemen from around the world to combat communism

                    

             2) CIA Bomb School

Los Fresnos, TX

 

             3) Other Agencies that Train or Equip LA Military

International Narcotics Control (INC)

Funding of equipment, training, eradication and other programs of the State Department’s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL)

International Military Education and Training (IMET)

Funding for courses given both in the U.S. and in-country by U.S. personnel

Expanded IMET
IMET that pays for training in non-combat subjects

Foreign Military Financing (FMF)
Grants and loans for defense articles, training and services

Drawdowns
Presidential authority to grant defense articles, training and services from the
U.S. arsenal

Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
Government-to-government sales of defense articles, training and services

Direct Commercial Sales (DCS)
Sales from
U.S. companies licensed by the U.S. government

Excess Defense Articles (EDA)

Leases
Defense articles leased by the
U.S. government

International Criminal Investigations and Training Program (ICITAP)
Law-enforcement training provided by the Department of Justice

Anti-Terrorism Assistance (ATA)
Weapons, equipment and training for prevention and management of terrorism

Discretionary Funding
Counter narcotics support from the White House's Office for National Drug Control Policy

Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC)
A policy initiative, using funds from other programs, to improve militaries' peacekeeping skills
 

Major Non-Nato Ally (MNNA) Status

 

Conclusion

      Since WWII, $200 billion, training 2.3 million from 80 countries

             Primary purpose of training

 

      Training foreign soldiers pushed after Vietnam

 

      Result in increase in human rights abuse

 

      In LA this responsible for 80-90% of the killing

 

      Could not happen without acquiescence and tax dollars of American people

 

Go through our Presidents highlighting a little of their involvement in LA

Eisenhower

      Responsible for the CIA coup in Guatemala in 1954

       

Kennedy

      Bay of Pigs invasion 1961

             CIA train 1400 Cuban exiles to invade Cuba

 

             CIA maintained

 

             US aircraft

            

             Kennedy

 

             Invasion a disaster

 

             Results:

                   Castro's army

 

                   Kennedy lied

 

                   Cuban exile blame Kennedy

 

             Bay of Pigs Declassified

Kennedy felt deceived by CIA

                  

                   MkUltra

 

Cuban Missile Crisis Oct 1962

             Cuba and USSR believed

 

             To deter the US and retaliate

 

             Kennedy had three options

                   1)

 

                   2)

 

                   3)

 

             Kennedy rejected diplomatic solution

 

                   Turned down the simple solution

 

             Chose third alternative

 

                   Needlessly brought world close to nuclear war

 

                   Khrushchev willing to accept humiliation

 

             1992 conference reveal how close the world came to nuclear war

                   CIA was wrong

 

                   Other things that could have trigger nuclear war

 

 

      Castro’s Cuba must be destroyed because it is a Threat of a Good Example

             A CIA report said of Cuba in 1964 that

 

 

             In July 1961 the CIA warned

 

            

      Kennedy tried to get all LA countries to declare that Cuba was a threat to

             hemispheric security

                        

      It was Kennedy who said in 1962 that

 

      It was Kennedy that made the position of the US very clear: He said that if there

             was a danger of a Castro, then we will always support a Trujillo

 

US Terrorism Against Cuba

             3,500 Cubans killed

 

      A few of the schemes to kill or discredit Castro:

 

      The Second Coming of Christ

            

      Operation Mongoose—to disrupt Cuban economy

 

             Robert Kennedy

 

      Examples:

 

                  

             Richard Helms, direction of CIA

 

             Orland Bosch bomb Cuban airliner killing 73 people

 

             Body of Secrets by James Bamford

                   Operation Northwoods—create pretexts to justify invasion of Cuba

     

US tries to blame Cuba for anything bad it can think of

      Chemical weapons

 

      Connection to terrorism

 

      Shark attacks

 

 

US still classifies Cuba as a terrorist nation

      Center for International Policy

 

What the American people were told

      Kennedy said

 

     

      Ecuador 1960-1963

             Angered because President Velasco would not break relations with Cuba

 

             CIA agent Philip Agee documents what was done in his book Inside the Company

                  

      Brazil

             In 1964 the US was instrumental in overthrowing President Goulart

 

             Goulart's crimes:

 

 

             Detect the pattern of kinds of governments US against

 

             US conspired with military to seize power

 

             US ambassador Lincoln Gordon

                   At first denied

 

                   Decisive victory for freedom

 

             The military would institute a 20 year period of repression and torture

 

                   The official investigation of the murder and torture in Brazil said that "one of

                         the first officials to introduce [torture] into Brazil was

 

                   19 year old blame US

 

             Spend $2 billion to protect $1.6 billion

 

Guatemala and Peru

 

 

Colombia

             Plan Lazo  "The Noose Plan”

 

Johnson

      Dominican Republic

             The US set up Trujillo as the dictator of Dominican Republic for 30 years

 

             Juan Bosch elected President

 

When Bosch would not come down hard on the Left

 

             Failed Duck test

 

Nixon

      Uruguay

             Transferred from Brazil, Dan Mitrione, the head of the US Office of Public Safety in Uruguay

 

             Demonstrations using beggars

 

             His motto was, "The precise pain, in the precise place, in the precise amount, for the desired effect."

 

Kidnapped by the Tupamaros

 

             At his funeral White House spokesman, Ron Ziegler, said,

 

 

      Chile

             US corporations-85% industry

                  

Allende, a socialist, threatened

 

Plot to overthrow began when Donald Kenadall of Pepsi called President Nixon

 

             Nixon called

 

US ambassador to Chile, Edward Korry

 

             CIA cable to US State Department

 

Ex-CIA chief John McCone

 

             David Rockefeller

 

             Allende could not be tolerated

                   Contrary to claim

 

                   The only thing worse

 

             Kissinger would say

 

 

             $10 million allotted to destroy Chilean economy

 

                   US ambassador to Chile

 

Began plotting with military for a coup of Allende

 

Nixon and Kissinger made it known that

 

             The coup was carried out by General Pinoche 9-11-73

 

 

             Torture not important

                   Threat of a good example

 

             Recently declassified secret documents reveal that the CIA may have given

Pinochet's government the go-ahead to murder

Two US citizens, Charles Horman, 31, and Frank Teruggi, 24,

 

One newly declassified memo said,

 

 

      Retied Chilean air force officer Rafael Agustin González

 

President Ford said

 

 

                   U.S. helped in the car bomb assassination of Orlando LetelierAllende's ambassador to the US in Washington, D.C.

                        

            

                   Kissinger's had meeting with Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet on June 8, 1976 and the documents reveal

 

Argentina

      Kissinger

 

             Guzzetti

 

      Vice President Nelson Rockefeller

 

 

 

Carter

      Get over our "inordinate fear of Communism"

      Attempted to make human rights the fulcrum of US foreign policy

     

 

      In spite of the fact that very little was actually done to support human rights in

             LA—it had a significant impact in LA

                  

 

      In the end the policy was a failure

             Carter an aberration—wait out         

 

             Carter not willing to endure instability

 

Reagan

     

After he was elected but before he took office, he sent a transition team to

 

      Speech in 1983 called Russia the “focus of evil in the modern world”

 

             Reagan not going to let El Salvador and Nicaragua go the way Cuba did

 

             Policy now is to “rollback” Communism in LA

 

Guatemala

 

      Most of the massacres took place in the 1980's during the administration of Rios Montt

     

Reagan told the

 

             Godfather of the death squads Sandoval Alarcón

 

             The Washington Post

 

             The Washington Office on Latin America

 

             In Guatemala City, right-wing terrorists

 

American Catholic missionary Sister Dianna Ortiz

 

      SOA graduate General Hector Gramajo

 

      Gramajo explained his new humanitarian policy

 

Reagan condemns Poland for human rights violation

 

      The report of the UN Historical Clarification Commission

 

      Council on Hemispheric Affairs

 

El Salvador

      A million dollar a day for ten years

 

      Elites steal and put in Miami banks

 

Reagan’s ambassador to the UN, Kirkpatrick,

 

      Alexander Haig, Chief of Staff, said

 

      The Massacre of Mazote

             The Reagan administration did everything they could to cover it up

             No one in congress really wanted to hear the truth anyway

                   Rationale

 

 

             The military of  El Salvador knew how the Americans thought

                  

 

             The Jesuit journal in El Salvador, the Proceso, compared how the Soviet Union and

its satellites treated their dissidents with the way the US and its satellites treated their dissidents:

 

 

Guatemalan journalist Julio Goday wrote that

 

 

      Evidence that US actually participated in the torture

             A Salvadorian deserter gave testimony to Raymond Bonner of the New York Times

 

      A U.N. Truth Commission report

 

 

Honduras

      Baltimore Sun did a four part series on the CIA and the Honduran death Battalion 316

      US create, trained, and covered up death battalion

 

      Torture training--Richard Stolz, then deputy director for operations

 

      John Negroponte

 

Nicaragua

      Sandinistas in Nicaragua also must be made to fail

             State Department official in 1981 boasted that we would

 

 

             Secretary of State George Shultz called the Sandinistas a

                   If the Sandinistas succeed in consolidating their power, then all the other LA countries will be

      emboldened to follow—the threat of a good example

 

      Nicaragua is a good example of the kinds of government that the US foreign policy is

             against and the kinds it supports

                   Nicaragua’s government help people

 

                         But us allies in Central America--Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador

 

                   Nicaragua did not kill its own people

 

                         US allies

                               Guatemala 200,000

                                El Salvador 75,0000

                                Honduras     50,000

 

                   According to US foreign policy agenda, why does this make sense?

            

      Reagan said Nicaragua was threat to US National Security

 

 

      Could not use US troops to invade NicaraguaVietnam syndrone

             1983 Washington Post/ABC News poll

 

             Power of American people if they know

 

      The other way was the Contras

             Terrorist organized and funded by the CIA--later called Nicaragua Democratic

Force FDN

Made up of ex-National Guardsmen

 

Poor Nicaraguans and Honduran made up the fighting units

     

             Recruit by kidnapping

 

             Reagan would refer to them as the "democratic resistance" and as "freedom fighters"

           

National guard made up most of the unit commanders

 

      CIA hired a Miami public relations firm, Woody Kepner Associates to create

             a positive image for the Contra

                  

      Contra purpose to wear out Nicaraguans

 

Its target were soft targets

 

Edgar Chamorro,

  

Ex-CIA John Stockwell

 

                   Former director of the CIA, Stansfield Turner called the Contras terrorists

 

                   Number of dead

 

                   Total cost for US

 

      Drugs

            

             That the Contra supply network also operated as a pipeline to get illegal drugs into the US

 

Gary Webb of the Mercury News

 

 

Oliver North

 

The country of Costa banned US personnel as drug traffickers

 

This is standard procedure of CIA

 

       

The so-called War on Drugs is not really a war—strategy to manage economic and political interests

 

      1) $300 billion

 

      2) Intervention

 

      3) Distracts

 

      4) Population control

 

      5) Private prisons

 

      6) Drives down wages

     

      Statistics:

             US has 2,200,000 in prison as of June 2005

             One in every 134 Americans

             25% of world

             Americans in correctional supervision 6.9 million—one in every 32 Americans

             African-American males targetted

 

      Conclusion

             Drug war not lost--successful

                   1)

 

                   2)

 

1990 elections

      US Strategy to demand elections

 

             US supports the opposition

 

             Finances opposition

 

      Illegal in the US

 

      Usually successful

 

      Public announcement that democracy triumphed

 

             Sandinistas consent to

 

                   US influence enormous

                         Money

 

                         War and embargo would continue

 

                   Nicaraguan people gave US what wanted

 

                   US has used same tactics twice since

 

      Bolivia

  

                   Since 1950 US interfered in 35 elections in 30 countries

 

Nicaragua destroyed and revolution undone

     

But strategy worked

People tired or embargo and war

 

             Sacrifice of people

 

             Hidden horror for American people

     

Bush

      Invasion of Panama  12/20/89

             Operation Just Cause

     

      Drugs were not the issue

            

             Real issue was that the Panama Canal would pass into the hands of the Panamanian

                   government on Jan 1, 2000

                  

             Up to 4000 civilian deaths

 

             House of Rep passed a resolution commending Bush for his handling of the invasion

                   Passed 389 to 26

             Just 8 months later on Aug 2, 1990 Suddam Hussein invaded Kuwait

                   Bush responded by saying that

 

             Did the US succeed in keeping the Canal?

 

 

Clinton

      Colombia

             Guerillas FARC and ELN threatening capital accumulation in US’s backyard

             Drug war is smokescreen for real target—the guerillas

 

Venezuela

      President Hugo Chávez—won Presidency by huge majorities

 

      US was involved in an attempt to overthrow Chávez in May 2002

 

      Why is US trying to get rid of Chávez?

             Using oil profits to help people

 

             Refused to follow US neoliberal model

 

             Setting up an alternative to capitalism

 

             Standing up to US

 

      Threat of a good example

 

             Venezuela US’s 3rd largest oil producer

 

      Coup on April 11, 2002

 

            Carried out by wealthy with advice and consent of Otto Reich of US State Department

                   Wayne Madsen

 

                   US provided Intelligence

 

                   Financed by US

 

                   US military on border

             Pedro Carmona took over government

He  immediately abolished the Congress, Supreme Court, etc.—establishing a dictatorship

 

             Every country in LA condemned the coup as a violation of international law

 

             Only the US government and major media came out in support of the coupsters

                  

 

      Within two days the Coup was reversed by the people

            

             Victory for people

 

             Internet news

 

      Not over yet

             Miguel Bustamante Madriz

 

             President Chavez

 

             Next time

 

Haiti

      Paramilitaries financed by US drove out President Aristide

 

      Aristide’s sin

 

 

In Your Name: A Soldier's Story by Stan Goff

 

      Like Smedley Butler fought only for elites

 

 

Myth vs Reality

 

      Michael Parenti

 

      Myth

 

      Reality

 

             Dr. Robert M. Bowman, Lt. Col., USAF wrote to President Bush

 

 

Summary US foreign policy

     

 

 

William Blum says it best—American foreign policy is driven by four motives:

             1)

 

             2)

 

             3)

 

             4)

 

Conclusion to US Involvement in LA:

      US brought about deaths in LA

 

      Information is not in question

 

      Truth painful experience

 

             Most of time Americans do not know what government is doing

 

      Distinction between Americans and government

             Henry Kissinger

 

             Iraq soldiers lacking body armor

 

             Depleted uranium

 

 

 

 

      According to international law, people still responsible

             Nuremberg Trials

     

             Daniel Goldhagen's 1996 book Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans

                         and the Holocaust

 

             Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson reminds us of our responsibility in a

                   representative government

 

 

             Edward Abbey

 

 

      Still responsible

 

 

      Worst mau yet to come